A CNC milling machine is a type of computer-controlled device. The apparatus receives instructions from a computer on which it functions. For this to happen, several parts have to work together. Therefore, a CNC milling machine is made up of several fundamental parts, some of which can be custom CNC parts. In this post, we discuss the primary CNC milling machine parts;

Primary parts of a CNC milling machine

Below are some of the significant components of a CNC milling machine;

  • Rack- the rack is situated on the foundation of the machine. This component’s role is to act as a support and a damper to control the CNC machine’s vibrations. Most of the time, the rack is made using granite-filled and properly welded structures.
  • Frame-this is the part that is connected to all the significant elements of the machine to provide movement in every direction. The activities of the device are usually programmed since computers typically control these machines. However, the movements can also be programmed manually. The frame also supports the device and offers rigidity for it to resist cutting forces. This part is mostly made of cast iron.
  • Table- the table functions as a work-holding solution, and it hosts the working pieces of the entire machining process. The work holdings are attached to the table using T-slots.
  • Spindle- This is the cornerstone of the whole machine. It is the part that holds the rotating assembly. It also features a taper. The taper is the location where tool holders are usually installed.
  • Control panel- this is the part of a CNC milling machine that hosts the computer keyboard. Depending on the type of CNC machine, the control panel may also hold small parts used to control the machine’s functions. The computer keyboard’s role is to allow you to program the G-codes into your device when using it.
  • Axis- most CNC machines feature at least one axis. However, depending on the device’s type and size, there can be up to six axes on a single machine. Even in machines with six axes, the first three are known as X, Y, and Z, and they are the most important. The rest from axis number four is more of accessories. Five axes machines are not very common. The axes are the parts that allow movement within the device. They use cartesian coordinates. The coordinates are typically programmed through G-Code and manual jogging. In cases where manual jogging is applied, it has to be done from the control pane.
  • CNC controller-this is the brain of the CNC milling machine. The controller is made up of electronics that control the axes’ movements and their motors. This is also the part that accepts G-code and manual inputs for programming through the control panel. It is the role of the controller to convert the instruction from the control panel into proper signals.


In addition to the components mentioned above, some other minor parts and accessories make up a CNC milling machine. For instance, the coolant, encloser, column, spindle, cutting tools, and several others.


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